Which of the following Statements about the United States Is Correct regarding the Kyoto Protocol

Article 25 of the Protocol provides that the Protocol “shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date on which at least 55 Parties to the Convention, including those listed in Annex I, which together accounted for at least 55 per cent of the total carbon dioxide emissions of Annex I countries for 1990, have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession”. [94] The official meeting of all States Parties to the Kyoto Protocol is the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Climate Change Conference (UNFCCC). It takes place every year; it serves as the official meeting of the UNFCCC. Parties to the Convention may participate in meetings related to the Protocol either as Parties to the Protocol or as observers. Nature conservation, food security and poverty reduction are among the objectives of the UNFCCC. The convention states that a stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations must be achieved.” in sufficient time to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable sustainable economic development. Overall, the 36 countries that have fully participated in the Protocol have committed to reducing their total emissions by 4 per cent compared to the base year 1990. Their average annual emissions in 2008-2012 were 24.2% below 1990 levels. Therefore, they have exceeded all their commitment with a great commitment. Including the United States and Canada, emissions decreased by 11.8%. The significant cuts were mainly due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, which reduced the Eastern bloc`s emissions by tens of percent in the early 1990s. In addition, the 2007/08 financial crisis significantly reduced emissions during the first Kyoto commitment period.

[7] Total aggregate GHG emissions, excluding emissions/removals from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF, i.e. carbon storage in forests and soils), increased from 19.0 to 17.8 thousand teragrams (Tg, equivalent to 109 kg) of CO2 equivalent for all Annex I Parties (see list below), including the United States as a whole, representing a decrease of 6.0% over the period 1990-2008. [111]:3 Several factors contributed to this decline. [111]:14 The first is due to the economic restructuring of Annex I “Economies in transition[111]:14 (EITs – see Intergovernmental Emissions Trading for the EIT List). During the period 1990-1999, EIT emissions fell by 40% following the collapse of central planning in the former Soviet Union and Eastern European countries. [112]:25 This has led to a massive contraction of their heavy industry-based economies, with associated reductions in their consumption and emissions of fossil fuels. [50]:24 The United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009 was one of the annual UN meetings that followed the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio. In 1997, discussions on the Kyoto Protocol took place and the Copenhagen conference was seen as an opportunity to agree on a successor to Kyoto that would lead to significant carbon reductions. [143] [144] In several large developing countries and fast-growing economies (China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, Egypt and Iran), greenhouse gas emissions have increased rapidly (PBL, 2009). [116] For example, emissions in China increased sharply between 1990 and 2005, often by more than 10% per year. Per capita emissions in non-Annex I countries remain for the most part significantly lower than in developed countries. Non-Annex I countries do not have quantitative emission reduction commitments, but they do commit to mitigation measures.

China, for example, had a national policy agenda to reduce emissions growth that included shutting down old, less efficient coal-fired power plants. 1997 – In December, the Parties in Kyoto, Japan, conclude the Kyoto Protocol, in which they agree on the broad outline of emission targets. The protocol defines a “compliance” mechanism as “the monitoring of compliance with obligations and sanctions in the event of non-compliance”. [91] According to Grubb (2003)[92], the explicit consequences of non-compliance with the Treaty are small compared to national law. [92] Nevertheless, the section on compliance with the treaty in the Marrakesh Accords was highly controversial. [92] Countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol have been assigned maximum levels of carbon emissions during certain periods and have participated in emissions trading. If a country issues more than the assigned limit, it is penalized by receiving a lower emission limit value in the following period. The United States, which had ratified the original Kyoto Agreement, withdrew from the Protocol in 2001. The U.S. felt the deal was unfair because it asked developed countries to limit emissions reductions only, and it believed it would hurt the U.S. However, with a growing scientific consensus that human activities have a noticeable impact on global climate systems, this contributes significantly to global warming, which could lead to serious impacts such as sea level rise, changes in weather patterns, and health impacts – and when it turned out that large countries like the United States and Japan were reaching the objective of voluntary stabilization by the year 2000.

– the Contracting Parties to the Treaty decided in 1995. that it would be necessary to reach a legally binding and non-voluntary agreement. Negotiations on a protocol establishing legally binding limits or reductions in greenhouse gas emissions have begun. The Parties decided that this round of negotiations would impose restrictions only on developed countries (the 38 countries listed in Annex I to the UNFCCC, including the former communist countries, and referred to as “Annex I countries”). (Developing countries are referred to as “non-Annex I countries.”) (1) This was referred to as the “Berlin Mandate”, which reflected the maintenance of the principle set out in the UNFCCC that the Parties have “common but differentiated responsibilities” in dealing with climate change issues and that Annex I countries should take initial measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. For these projects, developing countries received carbon credits that they could trade or sell to developed countries, allowing them to achieve higher levels of maximum carbon emissions for that period. In fact, this function has helped developed countries continue to emit high greenhouse gases. .